See my previous post in my unmanaged VPS (virtual private server) series, Nginx HTTPS SSL and Password-Protecting Directory, to learn how to configure Nginx to enable HTTPS SSL access and password-protect a directory. In this post, I will explore how to upgrade LEMP and Ubuntu.
While one can upgrade each component of LEMP (Linux, Nginx, MySQL, PHP) separately, the safest way is to upgrade all software components installed on the system to ensure that the dependencies are handled properly.
Upgrade all software packages, including LEMP, by running the following commands:
# on the newest versions of packages and their dependencies.
sudo apt-get update
# Use apt-get dist-upgrade, rather than apt-get upgrade, to
# intelligently handle dependencies and remove obsolete packages.
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
# Remove dependencies which are no longer used (frees up space)
sudo apt-get autoremove
Some changes may require a reboot. To initiate a reboot, execute this recommended command:
Updating PHP-FPM Breaks WordPress
If the PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager for PHP) package is updated, one may be prompted to overwrite the “/etc/php5/fpm/php.ini” and “/etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/www.conf” configuration files with the latest versions. I recommend selecting the option to show the differences, making a note of the differences (hitting the “q” key to quit out of the compare screen), and accepting the latest version of the files.
After the upgrade, WordPress may be broken because the PHP-FPM is no longer configured correctly. To fix this issue, update the two PHP-FPM configuration files with these changes to ensure that Nginx will successfully integrate with PHP-FPM:
sudo nano /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini
# Add the following or change the "cgi.fix_pathinfo=1" value to:
# Configure PHP to use a Unix socket for communication, which is faster than default TCP socket.
sudo nano /etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/www.conf
# Keep the following or change the "listen = 127.0.0.1:9000" value to:
listen = /var/run/php5-fpm.sock
# The latest Nginx has modified security handling which requires
# uncommenting the "listen.owner" and "listen.group" properties:
listen.owner = www-data
listen.group = www-data
;listen.mode = 0660
# Restart the PHP-FPM service to make the changes effective.
sudo service php5-fpm restart
Test by browsing to the “info.php” file (containing the call to “phpinfo” function) to ensure that Nginx can call PHP-FPM successfully. Hopefully, you won’t see the “502 Bad Gateway” error which means it didn’t. If so, look at the Nginx and PHP-FPM error log files for hints on what could have gone wrong.
sudo tail /var/log/php5-fpm.log
Note: If you accidentally select the option to keep the current version of the PHP-FPM configuration files and now wish to the get the latest versions, you will need to uninstall and re-install the PHP-FPM service:
sudo apt-get install php5-fpm
You will then need to update the two PHP-FPM configuration files per the instructions above.
Upgrade May Break iptables
After a recent upgrade, a “problem running iptables” error message is displayed when logging into the droplet. The whole error is displayed when I attempt to view the firewall status:
ERROR: problem running iptables: modprobe: ERROR: could not insert 'ip_tables': Exec format error
iptables v1.4.21: can't initialize iptables table `filter': Table does not exist (do you need to insmod?)
Perhaps iptables or your kernel needs to be upgraded.
Thanks to this page, problem with iptables and ubuntu Ubuntu 13.10, I found that the issue was caused by the upgrade process switching the kernel to a 64bit version. The problem is that the rest of the system (executables, object code, shared librairies) is 32bit!
~$ uname -a
Linux mydomain 3.13.0-39-generic #66-Ubuntu SMP Tue Oct 28 13:30:27 UTC 2014 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
# Check the system executables and libraries (32-bit means 32bit!)
~$ file /sbin/init
/sbin/init: ELF 32-bit LSB shared object, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.24, BuildID[sha1]=c394677bccc720a3bb4f4c42a48e008ff33e39b1, stripped
To fix the 64bit/32bit mismatch, I did the following:
- Browse to the DigitalOcean web interface, drill into my droplet, and select “Kernel” configuration (on left panel).
- I then selected the 32bit version of the kernel, which is “Ubuntu 14.04 x32 vmlinuz-3.13.0-39-generic” (only difference from the current kernel “Ubuntu 14.04 x64 vmlinuz-3.13.0-39-generic” is changing “x64” to “x32”). Click the Change button.
- Power down the droplet by running the “sudo poweroff” command.
- Use the DigitalOcean web interface to power on the droplet.
After doing the above, I no longer see the “problem running iptables” error message. Viewing the firewall status now successfully returns the correct set of rules:
To Action From
-- ------ ----
3333/tcp ALLOW Anywhere
80 ALLOW Anywhere
25/tcp ALLOW Anywhere
443 ALLOW Anywhere
Note: Be patient because the DigitalOcean web interface can take a minute to recognize reflect that the droplet is powered off (and then enable the Power On button). Also, the first two times I tried to power on the droplet, I got timeout errors. The 3rd attempt didn’t do anything. Finally, the 4th attempt successfully powered on the droplet. Whew!
The following is particular to my VPS provider, DigitalOcean, but perhaps it may help provide a general idea on what to expect with your own provider when doing an operating system upgrade.
On logging into my server, I saw the following notice:
Run 'do-release-upgrade' to upgrade to it.
Your current Hardware Enablement Stack (HWE) is no longer supported
since 2014-08-07. Security updates for critical parts (kernel
and graphics stack) of your system are no longer available.
For more information, please see:
To upgrade to a supported (or longer supported) configuration:
* Upgrade from Ubuntu 12.04 LTS to Ubuntu 14.04 LTS by running:
Update: One does not necessarily have to upgrade to the latest Ubuntu release version when prompted to. However, in the case above, support for the 12.04 LTS release had ended so an upgrade to 14.04 LTS was mandatory. Recently, I got a message to upgrade from release 14.04 LTS to 16.04 LTS. However, I don’t plan to upgrade because the 14.04 LTS release will be supported until 2019.
When I ran “sudo do-release-upgrade”, there was a dire warning about running upgrade over SSH (which I ignored) and many prompts to overwrite configuration files with newer versions (which I accepted after taking note of the differences between the new and old versions). There was also a warning about how the upgrade could take hours to complete, though it ended up taking less than 15 minutes. The upgrade ended with a prompt to reboot, which I accepted.
Note: To be safe, one should run the “sudo do-release-upgrade” command from the Console window (accessible through the DigitalOcean web interface), instead of from a SSH session. I was lucky that nothing went wrong with the release upgrade.
After reboot, I updated the two PHP-FPM configuration files, “/etc/php5/fpm/php.ini”
and “/etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/www.conf”, per the instructions in the above section.
In addition, I had to re-enable sudo permissions for my user by running the following:
# It is equivalent to "sudo vi /etc/sudoers" or "sudo nano /etc/sudoers" but includes validation.
# Add mynewuser to the "User privilege specification" section
root ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
mynewuser ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
I found the upgrade process, especially upgrading the Ubuntu operating system, to be a relatively painless experience. Hopefully you will find it to be the same when you do your upgrade.
See my followup post, Subversion Over SSH on an Unmanaged VPS, to learn how to install and use Subversion over SSH (svn+ssh).
Some info above derived from: